Working closely with computer scientists, my research looks at law and regulation of new and emerging technologies (typically but not exclusively involving AI/machine learning). I'm interested in legal responses to new technologies, online platforms, and automation; technical mechanisms for improving legal compliance and accountability of complex systems; and theoretical approaches to privacy, surveillance, and tech industry business models. Current research projects focus on legal standards for automated decision-making and the development of legally compliant and reviewable automated systems; regulation of algorithmic personalisation and targeting in online services; and the prospects of various technical means for facilitating compliance with legal and regulatory requirements in complex environments (such as the internet of things).

Working papers

Jennifer Cobbe 'Algorithmic Censorship by Social Platforms: Power and Resistance'

Chris Norval, Heleen Janssen, Jennifer Cobbe, and Jatinder Singh 'Data Protection and Tech Startups: The Need for Attention, Support, and Scrutiny'


Jennifer Cobbe 'Legal Singularity and the Reflexivity of Law', in Simon Deakin and Christopher Markou (eds.), Is Law Computable? Critical Perspectives on Law & Artificial Intelligence, Hart [forthcoming]


Jennifer Cobbe, Chris Norval, and Jatinder Singh (2020) ‘What Lies Beneath: Transparency in Online Services Supply Chains’, Journal of Cyber Policy, 5(1)

Seyyed Ahmad Javadi, Richard Cloete, Jennifer Cobbe, Michelle Seng Ah Lee and Jatinder Singh (2020) 'Monitoring Misuse for Accountable ‘Artificial Intelligence as a Service’', Proceedings of the 2020 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society (AIES '20), ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2020

Ben Wagner, Krisztina Rozgonyi, Marie-Therese Sekwenz, Jennifer Cobbe, and Jatinder Singh (2020) 'Consequences for Manufacturing Transparency? Facebook, Twitter and the German Network Enforcement Act', FAT* '20: Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency 

Jennifer Cobbe and Jatinder Singh (2019) 'Regulating Recommending: Motivations, Considerations, and Principles', European Journal of Law and Technology, 10(3)

Jatinder Singh and Jennifer Cobbe (2019) 'The Security Implications of Data Subject Rights', IEEE Security & Privacy, 17(6)

Jennifer Cobbe and John Morison (2019) 'Understanding the Smart City: Framing the challenges for law and good governance', in Emmanuel Slautsky (ed.), The Conclusions of the Chaire Mutations de l'Action Publique et du Droit Public, Sciences Po

Jennifer Cobbe (2019) 'Administrative Law and the Machines of Government: Judicial Review of Automated Public-Sector Decision-Making', Legal Studies, 39

Jatinder Singh, Jennifer Cobbe, and Chris Norval (2019) 'Decision Provenance: Harnessing data flow for accountable systems', IEEE Access, 7

Chris Norval, Jennifer Cobbe, Heleen Janssen, and Jatinder Singh  (2018) 'Reclaiming Data: Overcoming App Identification Barriers for Exercising Data Protection Rights', Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Legal and Technical Issues in Cloud and Pervasive Computing (IoT) [CLaw-18], UbiComp/ISWC’18 Adjunct

Jatinder Singh, Christopher Millard, Chris Reed, Jennifer Cobbe, and Jon Crowcroft (2018) 'Accountability in the Internet of Things (IoT): Systems, Law & Ways Forward', IEEE Computer, 51(7)

Jennifer Cobbe (2018) 'Casting the Dragnet: Communications Data Retention Under the Investigatory Powers Act', Public Law

Jennifer Cobbe and Louise O'Hagan (2016) 'Digital Citizenship: Report', Royal Irish Academy


Jennifer Cobbe (2018) 'Big Data, Surveillance, and the Digital Citizen' [PhD thesis]